Measuring Scour Level using Image Processing
Scour monitoring is a process to measure the level of soil erosion at the bridge pillars. Currently, the monitoring and the interpretation is done manually. This work proposes an automatic scour monitoring system that is able to detect and measure the level of scour. The system uses image processing techniques such as image inpainting, Hough transform to detect the level of scour, and artificial neural network to measure the scour level and scale numbers. Results show that the scour level can be detected automatically for even and uneven soil, and the scour level can be measured automatically and accurately.
This paper presents a development of an automatic scour level measuring system using image processing techniques for the even and uneven sediment. The proposed technique provides an automatic measuring of the scour level to avoid inconsistency of human observers. The scour monitoring system consists of works involving coastal engineering and image processing The proposed image processing of scour monitoring system consist of a number of techniques, such as image inpainting, image subdivision, Hough transform and character recognition using neural network In order to focus on the measurement of the sediment level, it is easier to remove the scale numbers and the scale levels than to retain them in the image. Here, Cahn-Hilliard image inpainting [24,25] is used to remove the scale numbers and levels. Image inpainting is a technique to fill in missing or damaged regions of image using pixel intensities surrounding the regions.
A computerized scour monitoring system based on image processing techniques was developed. The scour that has variation in structure and steepness can be measured using the proposed technique. Results of this work show that the level of scour can be measured automatically with higher accuracy than that of conventional approach. The scale numbers and the scale levels can also be detected. In the future work, the evolution of the levels of sediment will be measured and monitored in time-series.
 F. Azhari and K.J. Loh, “Laboratory validation of buried piezoelectric scour sensing rods”, Structural Control Health Monitoring, vol. 24(9), September 2017.
 B.W. Melville and S.E. Coleman, Bridge Scour, Water Resources Publications, January 2000.
 P.E. Clopper, P.F. Lagassse and L.W. Zevenbergen, “Bridge pier scour countermeasures”, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress, May 2007.
 X. Kong, S.C.M. Ho, G. Song, and C.S. Cai, “Scour monitoring system using fiber Bragg grating sensors and water-swellable polymers”, Journal of Bridge Engineering, vol. 22(7), July 2017.
 M.C. Forde, D.M. McCann, M.R. Clark, K.J. Broughton, P.J. Fenning, and A. Brown, “Radar measurement of bridge scour”, NDT&E International, vol. 32(8), pp. 481-492, 1999.
 J.L. Briaud, F.C.K. Ting, H.C. Chen, R. Gudavalli, S. Perugu, and G. Wei, “SRICOS: Prediction of scour rate in cohesive soils at bridge piers”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 125(4), pp. 237-246, April 1999.
 L. Hamill, Bridge Hydraulics: CRC Press, December 1998.
 L.J. Prendergast and K. Gavin, “A review of bridge scour monitoring techniques”, Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 6(2), pp. 138-149, April 2014.
 M. Farooq, N. Banthia, and F. Azhari, “Bridge scour monitoring: challenges and opportunities”, IABSE Symposium, pp. 2747-2754(8), Vancouver, 2017.
 J.L. Briaud, S. Hurlebaus, K. Chang, C. Yao, H. Sharma, and O. Yu, “Realtime monitoring of bridge scour using remote monitoring technology”, Technical Report 0-6060-1, Texas Transportation Institute, Austin, USA, February 2011.
 C. Lin, K. Wang, C. Chung, and Y. Weng, “New types of time domain reflectometry sensing waveguides for bridge scour monitoring”, Smart Materials and Structures, vol. 26(7), June 2017.
 X. Yu, and X. Yu, “Time domain reflectometry automatic bridge scour measurement system: principles and potentials”, Structural Health Monitoring, vol. 8(6), pp. 463-476, 2009.
 P. Michalis, A. Tarantino, C. Tachtatzis, and M. Judd, “Wireless monitoring of scour and re-deposit sediment evolution at bridge foundations based on soil electromagnetic properties”, Smart Materials and Structures, vol. 24(12), pp. 1-15, November 2015.
 L.J. Prendergast, D. Hester, and K. Gavin, “Determining the presence of scour around bridge foundations using vehicle-induced vibrations”, Journal of Bridge Engineering, vol. 21(10), October 2016.
 A. Elsaid and R. Seracino, “Rapid assessment of foundation scour using dynamic features of bridge superstructure”, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 50, pp. 42-49, January 2014.
 S. Li, S. He, H. Li, and Y. Jin, “Scour depth determination of bridge piers based on time-varying modal parameters: Application to Hangzhou Bay bridge”, Journal of Bridge Engineering, vol. 22(12), December 2017.
 T. Bao, R.A., Swartz, S. Vitton, Y. Sun, C. Zhang, and Z. Liu, “Critical insights for advanced bridge scour detection using the natural frequency”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 386, pp. 116-133, January 2017.
 X. Kong, S.C.M. Ho, G. Song, and C.S. Cai, “Scour monitoring system using fiber Bragg grating sensors and water-swellable polymers, Journal of Bridge Engineering, vol. 22(7), July 2017.
 M. Fisher, M.N. Chowdhury, A.A. Khan, and S. Atamturktur, “An evaluation of scour measurement devices”, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, vol. 33, pp. 55-67, October 2013.
 N.L. Anderson, A.M. Ismael, and T. Thitimakorn, “Ground-penetrating radar: A tool for monitoring bridge scour”, Environment & Engineering Geoscience, vol. 13(1), pp. 1-10, 2007.