Efficiency network construction of advanced Metering infrastructure using Zigbee
An advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) consists of a meter data management system, a concentrator, and a meter. Each component can communicate with all other components, through either wired or wireless connections. In an AMI local area networks, various protocols, such as Zigbee, WiFi, and power-line communication, have the potential for used in AMI communication. Of these protocols, Zigbee offers self-constructing networks, low costs, and superior safety levels .Zigbee is adopted as the LAN communication protocol because of these advantages in this study. In a LAN, a concentrator may encounter many emergent situations, any of which might cause the concentrator to lose its network connection function. Consequently, additional time is required for network construction, which tends to reduce the reliability of smart grids with LANs of this type. To solve these issues, this paper proposes fast join process (FJP) and enhanced FJP to shorten the time of Zigbee network construction. The strategy employed in this paper is to let every meter join a specified concentrator. The proposed FJPdoes not scan unnecessary channels. By simplifying association message exchange, we further propose a new method called the enhanced FJP. Using these methods, not only can message flow be managed easily, but the time of network construction can also be improved. Index Terms—Smart grids, Advanced metering infrastructures,Zigbee, IEEE 802.15.4, Network construction, Fast Join Process, Beacon free network.
the internet of things (IoT) has become more popular and widely used in many applications in our daily lives. Smart grids are a type of IoT applications that distribute electricity; each component of a smart grid can communicate with every other component through communication modules. Smart grids allow customers to report their power consumption levels to the power company, and then the power company analyses their data to offer customers the best possible utility service. In addition, smart grids also can connect with upper-layer applications, which provide customers real time controls over their home devices. Since the early 21st century, people have been dying to combine modern technologies with traditional power grids to offer more and improved services. People have gradually started paying much more attention to the environmental devastation and pollution caused by excessive consumption of fossil fuels because they are alarmed by the increasing environmental destruction and growing carbon emissions. This has led to increased awareness and a desire to develop environmentally friendly and renewable energy. As a result, the concept of smart grid was proposed. As mart grid integrates various distributed energy resources, such as wind power, thermal power, and hydroelectric power; and electricity customers benefit from this integration. Although smart grid can report customers’ power consumption levels over the Internet by using a complicated system of controls, computers, automation, new technologies, and equipment, this complicated system improves the customer experience; these technologies work with the electrical grid to respond digitallyto quickly changing electric demand for electricity .Compared with the traditional power grid, a smart gridcan balance power generation and will not cause excessive energy generation illustrates the relationships of various components between a smart grid which integrates smart appliances, energy generators, and smart homes into the meter data management systems (MDMSs).
The literature contains some research on how to shorten association process time. Proposed the Simple Association Process to be applied in star topology. They simplified the redundant primitives to improve the association successful rate and the node joining process. Meng et al. proposed fast association mechanism (FAM) in non-beacon mode to minimize association delay and to maintain network load and throughput. proposed a association scheme called dedicated beacon channel (DBC) which is tree topology in beacon-enabled mode. DBC can decrease both time and energy required for association. proposed a Fast Association Process for networks with tree topology. They used the same strategy to increase the success rate of network association and to facilitate the process bywhich a node joins a network. However, very few articles have considered the process by which a node scans the network before joining it, and the beacon-enabled mode of the network. Moreover. have focused on minimizing the numbers of network connections, which tends to prolong construction time. In an environment with moving nodes, each device frequently changes its location and loses its connection with the coordinator. They proposed the Fast Reassociation Scheme in which a provider node can find the most appropriate coordinator node by computing the link quality indicator (LQI). Although the Fast Reassociation Scheme can often prevent disconnections by linking each node to an appropriate coordinator, it is difficult to compute LQI when the network is initializing. This happens because each device must use information from the network to track the coordinator, and thus the network must be operational before the scheme is practicable. Klln reprogrammed nodes into new coordinators to recover fail networks. Scazzoli. used PAN ID instead of router to become the new coordinator of the network. Some other related problems are as following. proposed a solution for channel allocation and access scheduling problems. They focused on the channel resource sharing and a grid-based MAC protocol using Latin squares in WSNs. sought for the optimal transmission energy strategy by analyzing energy consumption model and data relay model in WSN-based IoT and proposing equivalent node to select relay node. Yen et al.  solved the beacon collision problem in ZigBee tree networks. They contributed aZigBee-compatible, distributed, risk-aware, probabilistic beacon scheduling algorithm that allowed a node to locally assess the risk of beacon collisions. In the next section, we introduce the Zigbee specification and the construction process in beacon-free mode. We describe the Zigbee network and analyze its advantages and disadvantages. Then, we illustrate the process by which initialize network and join a node into the it.
Smart grid provides two-way communication to achieve real-time responses. In order to achieve two-way communication, we must construct AMI. We can choose suitable communication protocols at different layers for AMI. In this paper, we focus on the improvement of the AMI LAN. Even more than other protocols, Zigbee offers features that are suitable for AMI, such as ease of installation, reliability, self configuration, self-repair, low costs, and safety. Consequently, we select Zigbee as our AMI LAN communication protocol.
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